Pancreatitis affects an important part of the gastrointestinal tract-the pancreas, which produces insulin and many enzymes involved in digestion. Not surprisingly, diet is essential to treat and prevent this disease. For pancreatitis, the diet should not contain alcohol, a lot of fat and fiber.
What is pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is one of the main organs of our endocrine system-acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas. The work of the entire gastrointestinal tract and the process of food digestion depend on the normal function of this organ.
The pancreas is located behind the stomach and close to the liver. It has many functions. The main function is the synthesis of hormones, especially insulin. It also produces digestive enzymes that provide the process of breaking down and absorbing fat, protein and carbohydrates. The digestion of food occurs under the influence of pancreatic juice, which flows directly into the duodenum.
In fact, pancreatitis is the self-poisoning of pancreatic tissue through the enzymes it produces. Inflammation begins with the overproduction of certain enzymes and an increase in glandular duct pressure. Excessive enzymes enter the normal blood stream and negatively affect the function of the brain, kidneys and other internal organs.
Causes of pancreatic inflammation:
- Alcoholism. More than half of pancreatitis cases are related to frequent consumption of large doses of alcohol.
- Pancreatitis usually develops into gallstone disease, abdominal trauma, bile duct cyst formation and glandular malignancy.
- The disease may be a side effect of certain drugs, such as diuretics.
People at risk include people with diabetes, people with other endocrine diseases, and hepatitis B or C. Sometimes pancreatitis develops during pregnancy or after a kidney transplant.
How alcohol affects the function of the pancreas
Alcohol in the body is broken down into acetaldehyde, which is toxic to the human body. Pancreatic cells are particularly susceptible to its destructive effects. In addition, drinking alcohol can cause cramps and narrowing of the pancreatic duct, which can cause pancreatic juice to accumulate in it. As a result, digestive enzymes begin to process the glands, causing inflammation. Over time, if the disease is not treated, the glandular cells die (pancreatic necrosis) and are replaced by scar tissue, and the organ will lose its previous function.
Types of pancreatitis
The most general classification of pancreatitis is based on the nature of the disease process: chronic pancreatitis with acute attacks or long-term periodic attacks. The two forms of symptoms differ in severity and require different treatments.
The inflammatory process of acute pancreatitis develops very rapidly and is always accompanied by severe pain. In most cases, this disease occurs under the background of alcoholism or after eating a lot of fatty food. Sometimes acute liver colic occurs before the acute attack.
Symptoms of acute pancreatitis:
- Severe pain in the left lower cartilage, radiating to other organs. The painful episode lasts about half an hour or an hour. The pain is particularly intense when lying on the back. After eating, especially fried and spicy foods and any alcoholic beverages, the seizures will intensify.
- Vomiting, usually mixed with bile and bitterness, uncontrollable. Nausea persists and will not disappear after vomiting.
- Fever or high fever.
- Sometimes, due to violation of the outflow of bile, yellowing of the whites of the eyes is rarely observed-the skin is yellow.
- In some cases, the pain syndrome is accompanied by heartburn and abdominal distension.
An acute pancreatitis attack requires immediate medical attention. Analgesics can only provide temporary relief, but not for inflammatory causes. Without qualified assistance, the risk of serious complications will increase rapidly: inflammatory tissue infection, necrosis and abscess infection.
Severe acute pancreatitis can cause shock and multiple organ failure.
If a person continues to drink and eat poorly without following the doctor’s advice after the onset of acute pancreatitis, the disease is likely to become chronic. During the first episode of the disease, chronic pancreatitis develops into severe damage to the pancreas.
The disease is characterized by gradual pathological changes in the cell structure of the pancreas. Over time, it begins to lose its main function-the production of enzymes needed to digest food. Exocrine dysfunction is manifested:
- Changes in the nature of stool-due to the large amount of fat in the stool, they are sticky and difficult to flush from the toilet wall.
Chronic pancreatitis can be asymptomatic for a long time: Acute pain will appear when obvious pathological changes have occurred in the pancreas. During the attack, chronic pancreatitis exhibits the same symptoms as acute pancreatitis:
- Severe pain in the belt,
Diagnosis is based on ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In the course of research, pancreatic duct stenosis-calcification is usually found due to the formation of stones. Hardware technology can also detect cysts in atrophy tissues. Laboratory blood tests are not very helpful for chronic pancreatitis.
The importance of enzymes in digestion
The functions of the human body are provided by a complex system of interrelated and interdependent biochemical reactions. Thanks to the use of special protein compounds-enzymes or enzymes-all these reactions are accelerated, thereby ensuring metabolism. The action of enzymes is very selective: each enzyme can only initiate, accelerate or slow down one reaction.
Digestion is based on the action of digestive enzymes. Their main task is to make the process of absorbing energy fast and efficient. Enzymes break down food components (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) into absorbable substances. At the same time, the quantity of enzymes produced depends on the quantity and quality of food consumed.
The food in the mouth has begun to digest. Food cut into small pieces of teeth is mixed with saliva, which contains the enzyme alpha-amylase. The better our ability to chew food, the easier it is for the enzymes in the salivary glands to convert starch molecules into soluble sugars and facilitate further processing.
After initial processing, the food enters the stomach through the esophagus, where pepsin, pepsin and hydrochloric acid come into play. These substances produce gastric juice, among them:
- Provide antibacterial protection for the body;
- Stimulate the production of pancreatic hormones;
- Regulate gastric motility;
- Breaks down fat and performs many other functions.
In addition to pepsin which can cause the breakdown of large protein molecules, other enzymes are also produced in the stomach, such as:
- Gelatinase-a solvent for collagen, gelatin and other proteins in connective tissue;
- Lipase-an enzyme that breaks down some fat molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides;
- Rennet-starts the digestion process of milk protein.
Bile plays an important role in the digestion process. It contains bile acids that stimulate the production of pancreatic secretions.
The food mass is drawn from the stomach to the duodenum, where the main process of food digestion takes place. Provides more than 20 pancreatic enzymes. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes, and pancreatic juice is produced by the glands about two liters a day.
- Protease-protein cleavage into amino acids;
- Nuclease-affect DNA nucleic acid;
- Amylase-break down starch into monosaccharides;
- Lipase-breaks down fat into higher fatty acids and glycerin.
The digestion process is completed by the enzymes of the small intestine and the beneficial bacteria living in the intestine. In the intestine, processed food is absorbed into the body (Figure 1).
If the enzyme production function of the organs of the digestive system (especially the pancreas) is impaired, the whole organism will become unbalanced. This imbalance leads to nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, and then anemia and exhaustion.
What to eat for pancreatin deficiency
In pancreatitis, the process of producing digestive enzymes by the pancreas is disrupted. As a result, people will feel stomach discomfort and pain. In this case, after a thorough examination, alternative treatments can be prescribed.
Important!All enzyme preparations start 20-30 minutes after a meal, so you must be drunk in strict accordance with the dose prescribed by your doctor before meals!
Modern pharmacology provides a large number of different enzyme preparations of animal and plant origin. Some of them are only intended to supplement the deficiency of any one enzyme, such as breaking down lactose or fat. It also stipulates the complex effects of the lack of several enzymes in the various organs of the digestive system.
What is pancreatitis diet
Nutrition is no less effective than drugs in the treatment of pancreatitis. The main purpose of the prescription diet is to restore the function of the pancreas and normalize the production of digestive enzymes.
Processing heavier foods will increase the burden on inflamed organs. After feasting food with fat fried, the pancreas began to produce a large amount of enzymes for digestion. If the ducts are narrowed, pancreatic juice produced in an extreme pattern will accumulate in the glands, exacerbating the development of the disease-the affected pancreas begins to digest itself.
The signals that indicate that the hardware is working in high mode include:
- The abdomen is heavy after eating,
- hit bur,
- Attack of stomach pain.
Of course, it is not easy to adhere to strict eating habits, especially at home. People with strict diets are forced to cook alone and resist the temptation to eat fried or spicy food.
Eating Rule 5: Pancreatitis can and cannot eat and drink
The pancreatitis diet has many restrictions on the allowable food and preparation methods. I. I. Professor, especially for people with pancreatic problems, this is one of the founders of Russian dietetics and gastroenterology. Pevzner developed the No. 5 diet chart.
However, before becoming familiar with the specific rules of this diet, it is necessary to consider the general principles of pancreatitis nutrition:
- You need to eat small amounts of food 5 times a day;
- Does not include fried and preserved foods;
- In the acute phase of the disease, food must be chopped or wiped; The diet should be based on animal protein.
- The daily fat content should not exceed 50 grams;
- Sugar is also strictly restricted-no more than 30 grams per day;
- Prohibited foods can increase flatulence-sweet carbonated drinks, any beans, sweet apples and grapes, sweet pastries and other things;
- The salt intake is minimal-no more than three to five grams.
Important!When suffering from pancreatitis, you can eat slow carbohydrates and you need to monitor the ratio of nutrients in your dishes. You should not deceive yourself, sugar can be replaced with honey, and sugar consumption should be controlled. First of all, you definitely need a calculator. The daily calorie intake and the balance of protein, fat and carbohydrates must be calculated immediately based on the body mass index. This information can be easily found on websites dedicated to proper nutrition and healthy lifestyles. There are a variety of mobile applications for calculating calories and nutrients.
All these principles are considered in diet number 5, which exists in the basic and advanced versions.
The basic version is suitable for relapse of chronic pancreatitis and has acute disease properties. In the acute phase, the diet is stricter and there are many restrictions. The purpose is to reduce the load on the pancreas and reduce the symptoms of acute inflammation. During the first three days of the acute phase, patients are advised to fast to rest their pancreas. In addition, within 3-7 days, you can eat a small amount of carbohydrate food at short intervals. Today, the calorie content in the diet should be reduced, and food should be consumed only in puree or semi-liquid form.
Important!It is generally believed that thick soup, especially chicken broth, helps solve any digestive problems. For pancreatitis, gallbladder disease and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the use of fatty broth is absolutely prohibited! Too much animal fat will significantly increase the burden on the pancreas and prevent the normalization of the disease.
The diet includes cereals in the water and various cereals, except for millet and corn, and boiled or steamed mashed potatoes. Drinks, light tea, jelly, dried fruit preserves are all allowed. Only white and slightly dry bread is allowed; you can eat biscuits and biscuits, such as biscuits.
On the third day of the carbohydrate diet, gradually introduce protein foods:
- Lean meat soup, it is recommended to boil the veal, turkey or chicken breast soup, chop the meat in the soup or put it in a blender and chop;
- Steamed egg rolls or soft-boiled eggs;
- Steamed meat pie made with lean meat or fish;
- Curd casserole and curd souffle have the lowest fat content.
It is recognized that the No. 5 diet can save as much pancreas as possible and requires complete rest in the acute phase. Table 1 shows the foods allowed and prohibited in the basic diet.
Important!The predominance of protein food in the diet can lead to constipation. In this case, you need to add more raw vegetables and fruits from the allowed list. For gout, vegetable protein or marine fish are preferred.
Light tea with lemon and a little sugar
Rose hip soup
Vegetables and juices diluted with water
Compotes and fruit drinks made from sugar-free fresh fruits
Chocolate and cocoa powder
Any alcohol, including beer
|Soup (basic diet)||
Unroasted vegetable soup
Grain or noodle soup
Lean meat soup borsch without deep frying
Fried vegetable classic borscht
Sorrel or Spinach Soup
Okroshka with kefir, kvass or whey
Rice porridge in buckwheat, oatmeal, water or dilute milk
Pilaf and dried fruits
Flax seed porridge
Cereal casserole and pudding
|Spaghetti||any durum wheat||Pasta with meat and hot sauce, such as Carbonara pasta|
|Meat and fish||
Peel the turkey and chicken, preferably white meat
Saltwater fish (2-3 times a week)
Dairy sausages-very limited
Oily river fish
Canned fish and meat
Semi-finished meat products
Any sweets and baked goods
Fritters with any filling
Low-fat fermented dairy products
Natural yogurt without additives
Fat fermented dairy products
|Vegetables (preferably seasonal)||
Tomatoes (only a small amount released)
Canned and pickled
Corn, asparagus, eggplant, turnip and turnip
|Berries and fruits||
Bananas are limited
Watermelon (not exceeding 200 grams)
any fresh berries
Cream-30 grams per day
Steam or oven omelet, preferably protein
cool or soft
Scrambled Eggs with Tomatoes
Omelet in a frying pan
|Salads and snacks||
Canned vegetables and snacks
|Sweets and desserts||
Nut Dessert-Kozinaki and others
After eliminating the symptoms of acute pancreatitis, the diet should be expanded to include other foods, the protein content of the diet, and total calorie intake. At the same time, long-term retention of nutritional principles to minimize the risk of disease recurrence. All meals must be cooked or steamed; food that is too cold cannot be eaten. At the first signs of worsening, you must immediately switch to the first diet option with lower calorie content and greater restrictions.
Important!When pancreatitis is particularly harmful: alcohol, chocolate, coffee and carbonated drinks.
Some restricted products
In the second form of the diet, sometimes you may like marshmallows and jam dissolved in tea. Parsley and other herbs are best used only to decorate dishes. Melon and pineapple can be eaten dry, but small amounts are required.
What herbs can you drink
To relieve the disease, you can drink herbal soup after consulting a doctor.
Parsley has obvious anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and can stimulate gastric secretion. In chronic pancreatitis, take fresh chopped coriander 2-3 times a day half an hour before meals.
The collection includes a variety of plants useful for inflammation: chamomile, wormwood, wild horses and other herbs. Prepare a set-based decoction according to the recommendations on the package.
Chronic pancreatitis is extremely rare in children under 14 years of age. When diagnosing acute forms of disease, nutrition is organized in the same way as adults.
Pregnant women's diet
Pregnant women often face problems related to the digestive tract. Pancreatitis may be caused by the abuse of vitamin complexes or the excessive pressure of the uterus on the pancreas.
The diet principle of pregnant women is no different from the general diet of pancreatitis. However, during pregnancy, it is extremely important to provide a complete diet for fetal development. Food must contain enough:
- Protein (lean meat and fish, dairy products, eggs, beans),
- Complex carbohydrates (cereals, pasta, fruits and vegetables),
- Fat (vegetable oil)
- Vitamins and minerals.
Strict adherence to the pancreatitis diet is the basis for successful treatment. Years of clinical practice has confirmed the effectiveness of diet 5. Appropriate nutrition is as important as medication. Therefore, the advice of the attending physician must not be ignored.